The technologies of comfort creation become more popular. Those interior elements that were considered as luxury items at some time become available to a wide range of consumers under current conditions of advanced technologies. The period of the last two decades was a time of mass distribution of carpets and carpet flooring. As the method of creation of comfort and functional convenience in apartments and offices – the polypropylene carpets can make a significant contribution to the formation of a fully-featured living space. The carpet floorings are beautiful and warm; they bring the things that can make the home-coming pleasant every day – the home comfort into our lives. Heat and sound insulation, noise reduction, as well as vibration comfort – these are the main properties of carpet products. Herewith, there are various types of carpets, and each of them is designed for a specific intended use (hall, bedroom, house, children’s room, hotel, office, etc.).
Considering the intended use, all the performance properties of the factory carpet are established, starting with the process of producing the fiber, and after transferring to the next stages of production. The enterprises that manufacture the carpets faces the main task: development of the demanded product in which has to optimally combine the design, operational and functional parameters necessary for creation of warmth and beauty. Sometimes it is the carpet that can set the cosiness and harmonious combination of the interior of the office or house with the atmosphere that fills the interior of a particular room.
Types of the carpets
The carpets, as a product category, are a kind of carpet flooring. They represent a complete product, overledged around the perimeter, with a complex (floristics, portraits, tapestries, classics) or simple (abstraction, unicolour motive) design (picture). The production of the woven carpets can be divided into several key stages: selection of the fiber materials, production of yarn, dyeing of fibers and / or yarn, the process of creating the woven structure, finishing additions. The process of careful selection of fiber materials is crucial, as it is the structural basis which determines the properties of the carpet products to be manufactured. The light-resistance and durability of the carpets depend on a way of coloring and a choice of coloring agents.
Synthetic yarn for the carpets: main stages of production.
As of today, the synthetic polypropylene rugs are made using three types of yarn: Frieze, Heat-Set, BCF.
The polypropylene plastic chips are supplied to the enterprises engaged in manufacturing of the carpet products in packaged form.
The extrusion spinning machine is used for the production of yarns, where the plastic chips are poured. The filled raw material is heated to the melting temperature, after which the dyes are added. Important clarification: the polypropylene is subject to dyeing only at the stage of yarn manufacturing. After obtaining the homogeneously colored polypropylene mixture, it is extruded through the fine filters under high pressure. The result of this process is BCF yarn.
The production of Heat-Set yarn is carried out using the additional processing operation. Namely, twisting of BCF filaments of the corresponding linear density around its axis with synchronous drawing, takes place. After, the heat setting process is carried out – the yarn is heated. After cooling, the yarn shape is saved, and the final result is the twisted yarn.
The Heat-Set yarn is used for producing the Frieze carpet quality. This yarn is made by randomly twisting the Heat-Set yarn to ringlet-shape condition. Such carpets have the exceptional durability, it is resistant to jamming and abrasion; Frieze carpets can hide dirt and footprints due to the highly twisted pile. This floor covering is relatively inexpensive. It is easily and well cleaned, which is why it is recommended for placement in such walk-through room spaces as corridors, children’s, and living rooms.
Technical characteristics used for definition of the carpet quality components
The density of the carpet. This indicator reflects the number of knots present on one area unit of the carpet product. A large number of knots tied at the area of the carpet surface of one square meter, determines the small value of the indicator; it affects the precision of the decorative image and the density of the carpet. In order to determine the density of the carpet, one should calculate the number of knots on a fixed unit of length in two directions: first – from the base of the carpet, then – longwise. After that it is necessary to multiply the obtained numbers. The density of carpets in Ukraine is usually measured in knots per square dicimeter. Since in general there are hundreds of thousands of knotted knots on the carpet, it is advisable to carry out the calculation in relation to a small area – for example, 10 by 10 centimeters. The result that you get can be multiplied by 100.
The number of pile points per square meter. This is an important indicator for evaluating the carpet coverings, which is calculated as the product of density by 2 and 100, where 100 is the number of square decimeters in one square meter, and 2 is the number of pile points obtained after cutting the loop (one unit).
The woven method of manufacturing the carpet products.
This method of manufacturing the carpet products is based on the interweaving of pile yarn with warp and weft yarns, after which they are woven together, eventually forming a complex structure. Such type of production process is quite complicated and slow, which affects the relatively higher cost. For woven products, the warp yarn is integrated into the coating, so it does not peel off even after hard cleaning and intensive wear. This flooring is resistant to the roller wheels of office chairs, it retains a wonderful appearance for a long time, and has a high degree of dimensional stability in dry and wet environmental conditions.
The contents of the carpet pile
The modern production particularity and commercial demands cause the relevance of manufacturing two maint types of yarn: natural (for the woolen carpets) and synthetic (polyamide, polypropylene).
Synthetic fibers — polypropylene.
Characteristics of the polypropylene:
- — high chemical stability;
- — colour fastness;
- — it is dyed in the melted condition during the production of the yarn (due to the high chemical inertness, it cannot be dyed by any of the existing traditional dying agent);
- — low price.
Besides the above-mentioed advantages of this material, it should also be noted about its:
- — Water resistance. This floor covering has the completely waterproof base and pile, they are not subject to decay, so the product can be cleaned with plenty of water.
- — Hygienic, nonallergic properties. Due to its structure, it provides the high resistance to fungi and generation of bacteria. It also prevents the dust accumulation.
- — Antistatic properties.
Due to its properties, the floor covering is used in the areas where the wear resistance and hygiene are required simultaneously. These are the offices, bars and restaurants, casinos, hotels, retail premises, educational and medical institutions, kindergartens, theaters, cinemas.